World Languages

World Languages

Holly Kindl, Department Head

The World Language Department offers courses ranging from introductory to Advanced in French, Spanish, and Latin as well as a full Arabic program with regular courses in levels I–IV. The department is committed to meeting the National Standards for Foreign Language Teaching developed by the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).

Modern language courses are conducted in the language of study as much as possible in order to develop proficiency in the four skills of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and to emphasize oral and written communication through collaborative exercises and multimedia activities, including weekly use of the language laboratory. In addition, the cultures of Francophone, Hispanic, Roman, and Arabic countries are integrated into the curriculum of each course.

Honors courses are available for levels III, IV, V & VI (French and Spanish) and levels IV, V & VI (Latin) for those students who have demonstrated advanced ability, skills, and motivation in the foreign language. Admission to the Honors level is based on department recommendation (demonstrated excellence in coursework) and/or in a proficiency exam. Honors students' placement is reviewed yearly.

Note: All new students to Lincoln must take a placement test (Arabic, French, Latin & Spanish) and have an oral interview (Arabic, French, or Spanish) prior to enrollment in any course above Level 1.

Department Requirements

Successful completion of three consecutive years of the same language in Upper School. The department has a minimum grade requirement: students who receive a grade below "C" may not advance to the next level of study without remedial work. The Department Head and Division Director must approve any plan for remediation.

Arabic

Arabic I

Yearlong Course

This course is an overview of Arabic geography and culture with a special emphasis on the sounds and scripts of the alphabet. In addition, basic grammar and vocabulary are consistently interwoven with the major cultural themes. Individual and collaborative activities and projects are designed to provide ample opportunity for the students to develop and use the language creatively and personally. Evaluation of student performance is based on participation in the classroom and on frequent oral and written testing throughout the year.

Prerequisite: none

Arabic II
Yearlong Course

This course focuses on Middle Eastern culture and geography and different dialects, which will expand the students' awareness and understanding of Arabic-speaking countries around the world. The students continue to work on building strong oral and aural skills, as well as expanding their reading and writing skills. More advanced grammar and vocabulary are introduced through multimedia textbooks, newspapers, and online resources. Evaluations are based on weekly quizzes and tests.

Prerequisite: Arabic I and/or the entrance exam, and/or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation

Arabic III

Yearlong Course

This course continues an in-depth exploration of the Arabic speaking world from a cross-cultural perspective. Students will solidify their knowledge of the basic rules of Arabic grammar, expand vocabulary in terms of complexity, and increase the acquisition of words for active use in a wide variety of topics and settings. Evaluations are based on weekly quizzes and tests and students are expected to write long compositions and give oral presentations.

Prerequisite: Arabic II and/or the entrance exam, and/or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation

Arabic IV

Yearlong Course

In this course, students acquire a deeper understanding of the culture to help gain effective communicative competence. Technology is interwoven into all units and vocabulary and grammar are presented in context as a part of each unit to provide a basis from which to develop language, critical thinking and communication skills. Tests and written and oral activities will be the basis for assessing students’ performance.

Prerequisite: Arabic III and/or the entrance exam, and/or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation.

French

French I

Yearlong Course

The first year of study introduces the student to basic grammar and everyday vocabulary, which is consistently interwoven with major cultural themes. Individual and collaborative activities and projects are designed to provide ample opportunity for the student to develop and use the language creatively and personally. Evaluation of student performance is based on participation in the classroom and on frequent oral and written testing throughout the year.

Prerequisite: none

French II

Yearlong Course

This course helps students to further develop proficiency in listening and speaking through the creation of original dialogues, and to improve reading and writing skills with the introduction of more advanced grammar and vocabulary. In addition, students study poems and short stories by famous Francophone authors in order to foster a greater cultural awareness and understanding of French-speaking countries around the world.

Prerequisite: successful completion of French I and/or the entrance exam, and the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation

French III & III Honors

Yearlong Course

The primary objective of this course is to complete the study of all the major grammatical structures, with an emphasis on a thorough understanding of the forms and functions of verb tenses and moods. This course seeks to integrate the development of the four skills of language with reports and readings. In addition to grammar review and the introduction of new grammar, each unit includes a selection of various primary source materials such as news articles, short stories, and material from the web. The culminating point of this course is the in-depth reading and study of a novel or play. By the end of the course, students are expected to be able to carry on a discussion in French and express themselves clearly in writing.

Prerequisite: successful completion of French II and/or the entrance exam, and/or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation.

Note: Honors credit is granted with recommendation of the Department, based on demonstrated skills and motivation, successful completion of French II and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam.

French IV/V- Topics in French Language and Francophone Culture

Yearlong Course

This two-year course sequence explores in-depth the Francophone world from a cross-cultural perspective. Key topics of the past and present are analyzed discussed, compared and contrasted and researched: geography, history, economy, everyday life, media, music, art, and topical trends. Technology is interwoven into all units and vocabulary and grammar are presented in context as a part of each unit to provide a basis from which to develop language, critical thinking and communication skills.

Prerequisite: successful completion of French III or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

French IV Honors

Yearlong Course

This advanced course is an exploration of the issues that have shaped and continue to shape the French-speaking world throughout history. To achieve further understanding of the connections between Francophone cultures, the class reads authentic selections of historical and cultural significance. Throughout the year, the four language skills are fully integrated with grammar review and vocabulary to enhance the student's ability to synthesize and analyze content material in written and oral form, through extensive practice of oral presentations and coherent essays. Original readings, films, music, and computer-accessed materials enhance the core curriculum and provide ample opportunities for the students to sharpen language skills in accordance with ACTFL Standards of Advanced Language Proficiency.

Prerequisite: successful completion of French III Honors, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Note: Based on enrollment, this course may be combined with the Advanced French Literature and Francophone Culture course.

Advanced French Literature and Francophone Culture

Yearlong Course

Students in this course are expected to interact with and react to authentic content with fluency and spontaneity. This course explores the issues that have shaped and continue to shape the Francophone world. Throughout the year, the students apply critical thinking skills to acquire a deeper understanding of the cultures and the political, economical, and social realities of the French-speaking world. With continued exposure to authentic media sources and an integrative review of grammar concepts, students work to sharpen the four language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening) to attain an advanced level of written and spoken communication to prepare for future careers and experiences.

Prerequisite: successful completion of French III/ IV Honors, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Spanish

Spanish I

Yearlong Course

The first year of study introduces the student to basic grammar and everyday vocabulary, which is consistently interwoven with major cultural themes. Individual and collaborative activities and projects are designed to provide ample opportunity for the student to develop and use the language creatively and personally. Evaluation of student performance is based on participation in the classroom and on frequent skills testing (listening, speaking, reading comprehension, and writing) throughout the year.

Prerequisite: none

Spanish II

Yearlong Course

This course continues to work on strengthening language skills in a wide variety of cultural contexts and everyday situations. Individual and collaborative activities and projects are designed to provide ample opportunity for the students to develop and use the language creatively and personally. In addition, students begin to study poems and short stories by famous Hispanic authors in order to foster a greater cultural awareness and to begin to analyze and interpret texts and figurative meanings in the target language. Evaluation of student performance is based on participation in the classroom and on frequent skills testing (listening, speaking, reading comprehension, and writing) throughout the year.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish I, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Spanish III

Yearlong Course

This course completes the study of the major grammatical concepts and structure and increases the acquisition of words for active use in a wide variety of topics and settings. The four language skills are strengthened through the presentation of oral interviews and skits, by continued exposure to literature selections and cultural readings and by writing compositions. Evaluation of student performance is based on participation in the classroom and on frequent oral and written testing throughout the year.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish II, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Spanish III Honors

Yearlong Course

This is course is designed to complete the study of the major grammatical concepts and structures in an integrative way, thus providing the student with ample practice to apply the concepts in concurrent, multiple skill areas. Higher-order thinking skills of analysis and synthesis are also practiced, thus preparing the student for Spanish IV Honors and a more sophisticated level of communication and interpretation. In addition, the students continue to explore a variety of cultural themes and samples of Hispanic literature. By the end of the course, students are expected to be able to carry on a discussion in Spanish, to express themselves clearly in composition and to read between the lines.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish II, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Spanish IV/V: Topics in Spanish Language and Hispanic Culture

Yearlong Course

This two year course sequence explores in-depth the Spanish-speaking world from a cross-cultural perspective. Key topics of the past and present are analyzed discussed, compared and contrasted and researched: geography, history, economy, everyday life, media, music, art, and topical trends. Technology is interwoven into all units and vocabulary and grammar are presented in context as a part of each unit to provide a basis from which to develop language, critical thinking and communication skills.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish III or the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Note: This course may be taken consecutively as texts and themes vary from year to year.

Spanish IV Honors

Yearlong Course

This advanced course is an exploration of the issues that have shaped and continue to shape the Spanish-speaking world throughout history. To achieve further understanding of the connections between Spanish, Latin American and Hispanic culture in the United States, the class reads authentic selections of historical and cultural significance. Throughout the year, the four language skills are fully integrated with grammar review and vocabulary to enhance the student's ability to synthesize and analyze content material in written and oral form, through extensive practice of oral presentations and coherent essays. Original readings, films, music, and computer-accessed materials enhance the core curriculum and provide ample opportunities for the students to sharpen language skills in accordance with ACTFL Standards of Advanced Language Proficiency.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish III Honors, the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam.

Advanced Spanish Literature and Hispanic Culture

Yearlong Course

Students in this course are expected to interact with and react to authentic content with fluency and spontaneity. This course explores the issues that have shaped and continue to shape the Hispanic world. Throughout the year, the students apply critical thinking skills to acquire a deeper understanding of the cultures and the political, economical, and social realities of the Spanish-speaking world. With continued exposure to authentic media sources and an integrative review of grammar concepts, students work to sharpen the four language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening) to attain an advanced level of written and spoken communication to prepare for future careers and experiences.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Spanish IV Honors, recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Note: This course may be taken consecutively as texts and themes vary from year to year.

Latin

Latin I

Yearlong Course

This course introduces students to the elements of the Latin language. Students in this course learn all six tenses of the verb and all five Latin noun declensions. They also learn hundreds of Latin words and how these words are often the ancestors of words that we use today. In addition to learning to read Latin students will learn about the origins of the Romans in the early iron age and the role Roman culture has played and continues to play in shaping the modern world.

Prerequisite: None.

Latin II

Yearlong Course

This course introduces students to the more complex patterns and constructions found in Latin. Examples of such points of advanced grammar are verbs in the passive voice, participial phrases, accusative-infinitive statement, and some uses of the verb in the subjunctive mood. In addition to grammar students will build their vocabulary and study patterns of word formation in Latin. As part of this course students will also study Roman political culture and Rome’s transition from republic to empire in the 1st c. bce.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Latin I , the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Latin III

Yearlong Course

This course is intended to develop the student’s ability to read Latin with facility and confidence. Students use genuine Latin texts as primary historical documents through which they gain access to significant events in Roman history. The majority of the work in this course will be translation from Latin to English, but the course includes a schedule of regular vocabulary assignments as well as written grammar exercises. Students study specialized vocabulary, peculiar grammar, and the historical context for each of the passages presented in the course. Readings include selections from Cicero, Caesar, Eutropius, Petronius, and Pliny.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Latin II , the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Latin IV/V

Yearlong Course

This two year course sequence provides an opportunity for students to develop their translation and textual interpretation skills at the advanced level. The first unit of study in this course, a set of readings about the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, is intended to lead students through a review of advanced Latin grammar. Students move on to read selections from Ovid’s Amores and Metamorphoses, two important works of Latin poetry. In the final unit of this course students read Cicero’s oration Pro Archia Poeta in which Cicero makes a case for the essential value of poetry in the life of the state. In addition to studying Roman culture and myth students in this course learn how to scan the poetic meters found in Latin love elegy and epic poetry.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Latin III or IV and the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Advanced Latin Literature- Cicero and Catullus

Yearlong Course

Students in this course are expected to be able to work independently using standard reference resources for the study of Latin. Course material for the honors-level Latin Literature course includes a prose text, Cicero’s Pro Caelio, and a selection of the poems of Catullus. Together these two texts provide a lively portrait of daily life in Rome during the 50’s BC, the turbulent decade which immediately preceded the collapse of republican government at Rome and the calamitous war between Caesar and Pompey.

Prerequisite: successful completion of Latin III or IV and the recommendation of the department based on demonstrated skills and motivation, and/or successful performance on an entrance/proficiency exam

Note: This course may be taken consecutively as texts and themes vary from year to year.

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